In group 15 of the periodic table or simply as Group 7A, Nitrogen is known as the lightest element i.e. “Pnictogens”. In universe it is very common and it is seventh most existing component in the solar system and Milky Way.
Occurrence: Nitrogen gas is available in the environmental air by 78% volume of dry air. When two atoms of nitrogen combine they are called dinitrogen or simply as nitrogen gas. This gas is an odorless colorless gas containing two atoms.
Nitrogen is found in all organisms even in the DNA and RNA i.e. nucleic acids. Our body also have approximately 3% through mass. Nitrogen is found in all important compounds they are nitric acid, cyanides and ammonia also.
Alloying Behavior of Nitrogen: As an alloying element nitrogen react with steel. Steel contain nitrogen in the form of impurity.
In the process of basic oxygen furnace it results to the low amount of nitrogen in the steels while in the Electric arc furnace it results to the higher amount of nitrogen. It can be beneficial or harmful to steels dependent upon its type.
Physical Properties: Nitrogen gas is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas. Its density is 1.25046 grams/liter. It could be only change to a liquid from a gas in the temperature of -320.42oF and changes to a solid from a liquid in the temperature -346.42oF. It becomes a white solid same as now when it freezes. Nitrogen gas is partially soluble in water. In 100 liters of water only two liters of nitrogen could be dissolved.
Chemical Properties: Nitrogen is an inactive gas and it only react when there is spark of some kind. Rather than a free nitrogen, nitric oxide is more reactive and it is formed when Oxygen and Nitrogen combines. During the rain nitric acid is mixed with the metals in the earth’s crust and form compounds like nitrates and nitrites etc. When Nitrogen is changed to compound nitrogen is known as nitrogen fixation. Even some bacteria are used for this purpose. They took all the nitrogen from the roots of trees where they live and act as host and transform them to nitrates. None have the ability of fixing the nitrogen all are dependent to soil of the trees to carry this process. It is only essential for growth of plants due to bacteria and both animals and humans eat plants that is why they contain nitrogen.